The connection possibilities via USB make it universally applicable for example in the laboratory or during a test drive. Due to its very compact design the VN is especially suitable for mobile applications. Do you have technical questions and are looking for suitable answers? Our KnowledgeBase provides the most important! Get a Quote. Application Areas. Flexible analysis of FlexRay networks and ECUs, Precise time analysis of communication data Analysis and test of ECUs and gateway applications Additionally, customer-specific applications can be created by using FlexRay-specific libraries.
General Synchronization with several devices and other bus systems e. Product Descriptions. Show previous. Show next. Visit the KnowledgeBase. News Events. Related Content.
Network Interfaces. Hardware Accessories. Various accessories for Vector network interfaces and loggers. Testing tools for the implementation of simulation and test environments. Measurement Technology. ECU Calibration. FR Comm.
Controller Analysis Startup. Temperature range, operating: storage:.As automobile development has continued apace, some new highly complex and critical subsystems have emerged. Simple networks such as CAN Bus and LIN Bus have long handled communications among controllers and electromechanical automotive systems, but an enhanced communication bus eventually became necessary to handle higher-bandwidth connections.
Accordingly, a consortium developed standards for what came to be called FlexRay. As currently implemented, it comprises the bus for what is known as drive-by-wire, steer-by-wire and break-by-wire. These new mechanisms enhance safety, performance and economy to no small degree. But in the event any of these fail, the consequences could be catastrophic.
For this reason, the electrical bus that provides their connectivity must be highly reliable. That mandate is central to FlexRay on both hardware and software levels. FlexRay is deterministic and fault-tolerant to a degree that makes it suitable for a chassis that at times may be hurtling along a steep, winding road or traversing rough terrain, perhaps operated by a less-than-expert driver.
The bus and all its components must last the life of the vehicle without even momentary failure. Typical two-channel connection of FlexRay nodes. A much higher price for FlexRay is just the cost of doing business in the context of the high-performance power train, drive-by-wire, active suspension and adaptive cruise control.
FlexRay operates on either one or two channels.
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Cabling is unshielded twisted pair swhich convey differential signaling to reduce noise from outside. In addition to the one or two twisted pairs, power and ground lines are connected to the nodes. The optional dual-channel hookup makes possible enhanced fault tolerance as well as increased bandwidth, which equates to higher-speed performance.
Proper termination is especially important in FlexRay because it routinely operates at much higher frequencies than its predecessors. When a system is being prototyped, termination resistance frequently must be adjusted to obtain satisfactory performance.
Currently, FlexRay interfaces on supplied circuit boards often incorporate resistive terminations, eliminating problems in impedance matching. FlexRay may incorporate more advanced star topologies, which can be integrated to good effect within the overall project.
Typically this topology suits designs where reliability, performance and costs are appropriate for high-tech applications. Because designers are familiar with this topology, they are sometimes inclined to stay with what works. But in reality the star network is preferable. In the star, individual links connect directly to a central hub, as in a LAN Ethernet network. Inline and star topologies are sometimes combined to form a hybrid configuration.
This is a good way to go because simplicity and low cost of the inline topology can be combined with the performance and reliability of the star. Scope makers often offer add-on features for decoding signals on widely used buses such as FLexRay.
In this display, a Tektronix scope shows input options for a FlexRay bus. In FlexRay, time is of the essence. The problem that must be confronted in any multi-drop bus is that there will be contention for bus resources and consequent data corruption if two or more nodes on a bus attempt to transmit simultaneously.
To prevent contention, various techniques have been found to work. Arbitration, for example, is employed on CAN Bus. This ensures potential competing nodes will yield to that node whose message has the highest priority.
An example of a FlexRay communication cycle showing the static and dynamic segment. FlexRay, accordingly, uses a different method to avoid contention on the bus. This new type of data bus uses a communication pattern that is uniform for both static and dynamic data. There is a time division multiple access TDMA scheme that manages data flow among the nodes, each of which waits its turn for access to the bus.FlexRay is a new bus system and communication system.
FlexRay ensures reliable and very powerful data interchange in real time between the electrical and mechatronic components. FlexRay serves for networking innovative functions of today and of the future in the vehicle. FlexRay contains a powerful protocol for real-time-capable data transfer to different systems which are utilised in the vehicle.
The FlexRay is significantly faster than the data buses used to date in motor vehicles in the area of body as well as drive and chassis. FlexRay supports not only the higher bandwidth but also deterministic data interchange; its configuration is error-tolerant.
This means that even after failure of individual components, reliable continued operation of the remaining communication systems is enabled. Depending on the vehicle equipment, the central gateway module ZGM is equipped with 2 star couplers each with 4 bus drivers. The bus drivers forward the data of the control units via the communication controller to the central gateway module ZGM. Depending on the type of termination, the FlexRay control units are connected to these bus drivers in 2 different ways.
Terminal resistors are used on both ends of the data lines on the FlexRay to prevent reflections. If only one control unit is connected to a bus driver, each of the connections to bus driver and control unit is equipped with a terminating resistor.
If the connection on the control unit is not the physical end node: The two components must be terminated at the ends of the respective paths with terminating resistors. The deterministic data interchange ensures that each message is transferred in the time-controlled section in real time. Real time means that the transmission takes place in a specified time. This is why signal transmissions cannot be measured using the IMIB. The control units on the FlexRay can be woken by a bus signal.
To implement synchronous execution of individual functions in networked control units, a common time base is necessary. As all the control units work internally with their own clock generator, time synchronisation must take place via the bus. For fault-free synchronisation of the FlexRay bus system, communication from ZGM to at least 2 of the control units is required.
For faults on the bus system e. No engine start is possible if an interruption of the communication between the control units occurs. The wiring of the FlexRay bus system is designed as two-wire, twisted cable partially clad. Some of the terminal resistors are located in the central gateway module and in the user devices.
The various termination options can lead to misinterpretations of the measurement results. In the static state, the resistance value can be within the tolerance even if there is damage such as pinched locations or connector corrosion. It is possible to repair the FlexRay.
In the event of damage lines may be bundled using commercially available cable straps. However, use special lines only. Various particularities must be observed during the installation. The wiring of the FlexRay is a twisted cable. This twist must be preserved during repair. Stripped sections in the repair area must be sealed with shrink-on hoses. Water ingress can affect the wave resistance resistance for the spread of electromagnetic waves in a conductor and thus the performance of the bus system.
Sponsored links.FlexRay is an automotive network communications protocol developed by the FlexRay Consortium to govern on-board automotive computing. The bus operates on a time cycle, divided into two parts: the static segment and the dynamic segment. The static segment is preallocated into slices for individual communication types, providing stronger determinism than its predecessor CAN. The dynamic segment operates more like CANwith nodes taking control of the bus as available, allowing event-triggered behavior.
By Septemberthere were 28 premium associate members and more than 60 associate members. At the end ofthe consortium disbanded. The first series production vehicle with FlexRay was at the end of in the BMW X5 E70 enabling a new and fast adaptive damping system. Each ECU has an independent clock.
The clock drift must be not more than 0. This means that, if ECU-s is a sender and ECU-r is a receiver, then for every cycles of the sender there will be between and cycles of the receiver. The clocks are resynchronized frequently enough to assure that this causes no problems. The clock is sent in the static segment. At each time, only one ECU writes to the bus. Each bit to be sent is held on the bus for 8 sample clock cycles.
The receiver keeps a buffer of the last 5 samples, and uses the majority of the last 5 samples as the input signal. Single-cycle transmission errors may affect results near the boundary of the bits, but will not affect cycles in the middle of the 8-cycle region. The value of the bit is sampled in the middle of the 8-bit region.
The errors are moved to the extreme cycles, and the clock is synchronized frequently enough for the drift to be small. Drift is smaller than 1 cycle per cycles, and during transmission the clock is synchronized more than once every cycles.
All the communication is sent in the form of frames. If nothing is being communicated, the bus is held in state 1 high voltageso every receiver knows that the communication started when the voltage drops to 0. Note that 8-cycle per bit has nothing to do with bytes.
Each byte takes 80 cycles to transfer. As synchronization is done on the voted signal, small transmission errors during synchronization that affect the boundary bits may skew the synchronization no more than 1 cycle. As there are at most 88 cycles between synchronization BSS1, 8 bits of the last byte, FES and TES - 11 bits of 8 cycles eachand the clock drift is no larger than 1 per cycles, the drift may skew the clock no more than 1 cycle.FlexRay Configuration Overview NXP
Small transmission errors during the receiving may affect only the boundary bits. So in the worst case the two middle bits are correct, and thus the sampled value is correct. Here's an example of a particularly bad case - error during synchronization, a lost cycle due to clock drift and error in transmission. The green cells are sampling points.Flextray wire mesh basket is ideal for commercial and data center cable management, providing a flexible means of adapting your tray to fit your job-site application.
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Diagnosis on the FlexRay
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FlexRay was developed by a consortium of manufacturers to provide a deterministic, fault-tolerant and high-speed alternative to CAN. PicoScope software can decode and display many cycles of FlexRay data in both a table format and a color-keyed trace, time-aligned with the data signal. A FlexRay bus consists of differential twisted pairs of shielded or unshielded cable connecting a transmitting node and one or more receiving nodes.
Each differential pair must be terminated at each node with a resistance between 80 and ohms. The bus is bidirectional, so each node requires both a transmitter and receiver combined in what is known as a bus driver.
The FlexRay Electrical Physical Layer Specification defines four bus states, two of which are recessive and two dominant. The recessive bus state has a differential voltage of 0 volts and the dominant state has a differential voltage not equal to 0 volts. If a node is in its low power state Standby, Sleep, Go-To-Sleepthe Idle Low Power bus state is used, which also has a 0 V differential voltage, but the two bus wires are in this case at a nominal 0 V level.
The Idle state is a defined length of time used by each node to maintain clock synchronization. Ultra deep memory oscilloscope Big waveform data analysis with PicoScope Series The fastest sampling, highest bandwidth, deepest memory and fastest waveform update rate of any USB oscilloscope on the market today.
FlexRay differential voltage bus The FlexRay Electrical Physical Layer Specification defines four bus states, two of which are recessive and two dominant.In addition to access to the vehicle via the diagnostic connector CAN or K-Linedefined by the legislator, other bus systems have also established themselves as standards in the vehicle. These always focus on special requirements, ranging from inexpensive implementation e.
LIN through high bandwidth Ethernet to possible use in security-relevant distributed closed-loop control FlexRay. It permits high data rates in diagnostics and flash programming. It creates small subnets. FlexRay FlexRay was invented at the beginning of this century to be able to implement an appropriate bus system for security-critical applications.
It enables deterministic time responses and is designed to be redundant. Ethernet With Ethernet, a standard that has been used successfully for years now in networking is currently being introduced to automotive electronics. In addition to inexpensive components, a major advantage is the extremely high bandwidth - both in onboard communication and in flash programming.
LIN bus Local Interconnected Network enables the inexpensive integration of sensors and actuators in vehicle networks. FlexRay was invented at the beginning of this century to be able to implement an appropriate bus system for security-critical applications. MOST Media Oriented System Transport was introduced at the beginning of this century to simplify the integration of infotainment ECUs into the vehicle thanks to its special communication mechanisms and high data rates.
K-Line - ISO SAE J The launch of OBD led to standardized access of vehicle networks - something enabled in the US with the help of the J standard. With Ethernet, a standard that has been used successfully for years now in networking is currently being introduced to automotive electronics.